Textile weaving is almost as old as civilization itself, and it is still practiced around the globe. Weaving probably developed as a refinement of mat or basket making, in which the much finer materials needed the support of vertical tension to remain straight.
Much of what we know about looms is the product of guesswork, offering few specific dates or inventors. While early looms were made of wood, which is not known to last, illustrations of them have been preserved on sturdier artifacts, such as pottery. The oldest depiction of a loom -- a horizontal ground-loom design -- was found on the side of a bowl unearthed in Badara, Egypt. Textiles, which can provide evidence of the looms that created them, have been preserved under certain conditions that prevent bugs and rot.
Egypt's dry, sand-laden climate allowed for the preservation of quantities of plain linen, most of which were found in pharaohs' tombs. Frozen tombs uncovered in Central Asia contained ancient loom-woven textiles. Scandinavian bogs sealed entire garments from as early as the Bronze Age. Horizontal designs follow the way materials would have been laid out on the ground. They were used by a number of ancient cultures, and Bedouin tribes today still favor this style of loom.
An innovation on this design was the pit loom, in which the weaver would sit or stand in an actual pit to allow for more comfortable work. This became a more effective tool when pedals were introduced that allowed the weaver to move the warp threads, allowing the shuttle to go through more easily. Vertical, warp-weighted looms -- in which tension is kept by tying weights to bundles of threads -- are depicted in ancient Greek arts.
By B. This style of loom is still used by the Navajo Indians, who picked up weaving from the Pueblo Indians long before the arrival of the Spaniards. One of the most important innovations on the basic vertical loom was the separation of the warps using shed sticks, followed by further separation creating a "counter-shed" using a heddle bar.
Vertical looms also came to use foot treadles. Body-tensioned looms involve a strap and two bars, one attached to the wearer and one to a post, tree or similar object. These looms are portable, allowing the entire project to be rolled up and attached to a different fixed point. Over time, these looms were refined with many of the same innovations as vertical looms, including shed sticks and heddle bars.
Body-tensioned looms have been popular in a number of countries, from Japan to India, but today are most commonly seen in Peru and Mexico. Joseph-Marie Jacquard invented a loom that used a punch card system in This was the first step toward automating weaving, and also had an effect on other scientists -- including those working on computers. This created an intertwining relationship between computers and weaving, allowing for ever-increasing complexity in design and pattern.
Today, everything from which warps are moved to weaving speed can be controlled from a laptop computer.I have just added the links and some pictures. The Indian sub-continent has a rich and ancient history of textile art and exports, with the heritage spanning almost 5, years. The excavations at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro reveal that the spinning wheel or the charkha was an essential part of the sub-continental household. Other than practices of resist-dyeing, hand-painting, and embroidery, the Indus Valley people were masters in the art of weaving.
The Vedic Aryans and the Buddhists who settled in this region after the Indus Valley Civilization also used the charkha.See How Indigenous Weaving Styles Are Preserved in Guatemala - National Geographic
The entire cloth-making process which was done by hand, involved great skill and the sub continental textiles were unrivalled for their excellence. When the Mughals ruled the subcontinent, hand spinning and weaving continued to be an important occupation and the era brought in use of gold and silver brocades, fine-figured muslins, fabulous weaves, printed and painted fabrics, exquisite carpets, intricate embroideries and endless variety and designs being produced on a mass scale.
Jahangir investing a courtier with a robe of honour, watched by Sir Thomas Roe, English ambassador to the court of Jahangir at Agra from toand others. Emperors Akbar and Jahangir took personal interest in developing the crafts, and the fabrics from this region became even more exquisite and ornate.
By the 16th century, foreign traders including the Portuguese, the Dutch, the French, and the British had begun to come to India from the West and by the 17th century, the English traders had set-up the East India Trading Company with the main object of importing Indian goods including textiles. With this fascinating background, it is no wonder that modern day Pakistan, like neighbouring India and Bangladesh, still has a huge industry centred on textiles.
The sector contributes nearly one-fourth of industrial value-added and provides employment to about 40 percent of industrial labour force. Even though the last decade saw the textile industry of Pakistan flounder in the face of incessant power and gas cuts, the textile industry seems to have bounced back as bank advances to the sector were record high in Under Textile PolicyRs Pakistan is the fourth largest producer of cotton in the world and holds the largest spinning capacity in Asia after China and India.
A recent report issued by the State Bank of Pakistan SBP reveals that year-on-year growth in textile sector advances has been Rs90 billion in in contrast to the net retirement of Rs30 billion in With this resurgence of the industry, recently a lot of interest has been shown in reviving the craft of Pakistan textile art.
Pakistan is home to many beautiful crafts like woven textiles and embroidered products from Swat and other regions. While weaving is carried out in many major cities, Swat in particular is a long established weaving centre whose blankets are mentioned even in early Buddhist texts. Or the embroidered textiles and leather crafts from Balochistan which are used to make shawls, caps, vests and an assortment of dresses.
In Sindh, different types of woven textiles are a common sight in the cities of Hyderabad, Khairpur, Hala and Thatta. Ajrak, a unique pattern produced in Sindh is printed on shawls and caps and has become a unique symbol of Sindhi culture.
Similarly, phulkari from Multan, block-printing from Lahore, chunri, and rilli work are all artful displays of the rich heritage of Pakistan. Some local brands have invested in bringing these traditional textile designs into the mainstream.
One such revival story is that of the hand-woven khaddar, which had all but disappeared from conventional fashion. Khaddar is a natural fibre cloth made out of cotton, silk or wool and has a long history in the sub-continent. In Pakistan, the revival of handloom weaving can be principally credited to a local start-up, Khaadi. Despite being a major producer and exporter of superior quality cloth for decades, the boom of fashion in the country is a fairly recent phenomenon and Pakistani designers have caught the eye of many outside the country.
Brands have played a vital role in transforming a manufacturing focused textile industry to a more holistic market that also encompasses a focus on retail and fashion.
History of the Weaving Loom
Although developing rapidly, these two areas are still in their nascent stages it promises to blossom into something befitting our splendid legacy. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account.
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This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Feb 3.The art of weaving has evolved over the course of thousands of years, through discovery and experimentation. It involves the production of fabric or cloth by interlacing two distinct sets of yarns or threads in a right angle.
The usually pulled taut vertical strings are called the warp, and the horizontal thread that is intertwined over and under them is called the weft. The way these two strings are interwoven affects the characteristics of the cloth that will be produced. Early civilization called for temporary shelters to be built, so knowing how to twine, plait, knot and weave materials such as grass, twigs, string and twine together, in order to build walls, roofs, bedding, baskets and doors, was imperative.
It is believed that man first learned how to create string 20 to 30 thousand years ago, by twisting plant fibres together. This technique evolved through time, and man was eventually able to stretch and dry fibres, in order to produce finer threads. A distinct fabric impression in an archeological find Dolni Vestonicehas lead scientists to the conclusion that the discovery of weaving actually took place as early as the Paleolithic era.
Some of the first materials ever used to create actual fabric are help, raffia, leaf fibres, hair, wool, fur, and animal sinews. Textiles have been discovered dating back to Ancient civilizations, such as:. By the end of the 19th century, the industrial revolution had rendered handcrafts obsolete, since modern machines, like the Jacquard mechanical looms, were taking charge of textile production. Nowadays, wand-woven fabrics and textiles are appreciated for what they are; unique works of art of unparalleled quality and worth.
However, interest in hand-woven textiles was revived during the 20th century, thanks to the Art Deco movement, and folk handcrafts organizations in the US and the UK taught crafters to be almost entirely self-sufficient. Hundreds of weaving villages around the globe, especially in developing countries, serve as a reminder of times past, when hand-crafted textiles and fabrics were the norm.
In the age of globalization, cottage industries often face many disadvantages when attempting to compete with large factory-based businesses, however nowadays a new hope has dawned for weaving villages, since modern consumers seem to be appreciative of the unique allure of hand-made products, and tend to be more eager to support companies that follow socially and ecologically responsible business models.
There are approximately craft villages in Vietnam, some of which are traditional, while others are modern. Craft villages are important to the nation, because they help counter rural poverty, and reduce the rural-urban income gap.
To the people, crafting villages offer the opportunity to be independent by providing jobs and income during off-crop seasons, while improving their quality of life and helping to preserve their culture. Hand-woven cotton, silk and brocade with unique motifs, designs and colors are used to make clothing, bags, purses, handkerchiefs and other items, but their textiles can also be sold in bulk.
They are the perfect souvenirs, since they are unique to the people who made them, and the place they are bought from. A Vietnamese shop, selling handmade products . Vietnamese Brocade is a type of woven fabric made from raw cotton, flax or hemp. It is rich in texture, and is usually dyed in many colors, using natural dyes made from plants, seeds and other resources that the artisans collect from their surroundings.From earliest times fibres have played a vital part in human life, not only as a means of clothing, but also as basic commodities such as wool, silk, linen and cotton, on which entire empires have been based.
Without the skill to spin a thread and to weave it into cloth, textiles as we know them today would not exist.
The History of Weaving Part 3 – America
The invention of the spindle for twisting fibres into yarn was on a level with that of the wheel, in terms of importance for the progress of civilization. The earliest known evidence in Ireland of woven material dates from about B. A fragment of cloth in the National Museum, found in a bog in County Antrim, is dated from at least B. Stone spinning whorls have been recovered from many excavations such as crannogs or lake dwellings of the first and second centuries B.
Fragments of woven fabric and weaving tools have been found in the excavations of Viking and Medieval Dublin.
So important were the skills of spinning and weaving in early Ireland, that the Brehon Laws, written about A. Historically, weaving in Ireland took two forms. Secondly, from the thirteenth century onwards, the more organised urban craftsmen weaving for a larger domestic and export market. This latter was largely destroyed by restrictive laws imposed on the export of Irish woollen cloth at the end of the seventeenth century and did not revive again until the late nineteenth century.
During the famine years, the tradition of the local handweaver almost disappeared, but managed to survive in parts of Donegal, Mayo and Galway. In the late nineteenth century the Congested Districts Board and the Irish Industries Association helped to get the craft on its feet again. By the twentieth century there were power mills, handweaving mills and the individual weavers operating. The handweavers were also encouraged by the Irish Homespun Society, which was founded in The first to avail themselves of these rights were the Merchants, whose guild dates from this time.
The Guild consisted of a Master and two Wardens, and brethren — both men and women. In addition it was entitled to establish a chantry of one priest or more to celebrate in the chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the church of the Friars Carmelite in Dublin.
Weaving facts for kids
The Guild could examine offences by weavers, their servants or apprentices in the city and within six miles of the precincts, and could imprison offenders. Their apprenticeship was for seven years, and before being given freedom of the Guild they had to satisfy the Master and Wardens of their weaving skills.
The Guilds developed great political power since each Guild was entitled to return a number of members to sit on the Dublin City Assembly, the governing body of the city. During the Middle Ages the most colourful event of the year was the Corpus Christi pageant in which scenes from the Bible were enacted by the various Guilds.
Each Guild selected an episode which reflected its own work. The weavers were represented by Abraham and Isaac, with an alter and a lamb. The other great spectacle to which the Guilds were summoned every third year by the Lord Mayor, was the Riding of the Franchises.
As time passed the Riding of the Franchises became a peaceful display of the work of the various Guilds and an opportunity to show their wares to the crowds. Each of the twenty-five Guilds marched behind a vehicle drawn by the most splendid horses obtainable; and on the floats craftsmen worked at their trades.Basket weaving also basketry or basket making is the process of weaving or sewing pliable materials into two- or three-dimensional artifacts, such as mats or containers.
Craftspeople and artists specialized in making baskets may be known as basket makers and basket weavers. Basketry is made from a variety of fibrous or pliable materials—anything that will bend and form a shape. Examples include pinestrawwillowoakwisteriaforsythiavinesstemsanimal hairhidegrassesthread, and fine wooden splints.
There are many applications for basketry, from simple mats to hot air balloon gondolas. Many Indigenous peoples are renowned for their basket-weaving techniques.
While basket weaving is one of the widest spread crafts in the history of any human civilizationit is hard to say just how old the craft is, because natural materials like wood, grass, and animal remains decay naturally and constantly.
So without proper preservation, much of the history of basket making has been lost and is simply speculated upon. The extremely well-preserved Early Neolithic ritual cave site of Nahal Hemar yielded thousands of intact perishable artefacts, including basketry containers, fabrics, and various types of cordage.
The oldest known baskets have been carbon dated to between 10, and 12, years old, earlier than any established dates for archaeological finds of pottery[ citation needed ] and were discovered in Faiyum in upper Egypt.
However, baskets seldom survive, as they are made from perishable materials. The most common evidence of a knowledge of basketry is an imprint of the weave on fragments of clay pots, formed by packing clay on the walls of the basket and firing. During the Industrial Revolutionbaskets were used in factories and for packing and deliveries.
Wicker furniture became fashionable in Victorian society. During the World Wars, thousands of baskets were used for transporting messenger pigeons. There were also observational balloon baskets, baskets for shell cases and airborne pannier baskets used for dropping supplies of ammunition and food to the troops. Basketry may be classified into four types, according to Catherine Erdly: .
Weaving with rattan core also known as reed is one of the more popular techniques being practiced, because it is easily available. Also, while traditional materials like oak, hickoryand willow might be hard to come by, reed is plentiful and can be cut into any size or shape that might be needed for a pattern.
This includes flat reed, which is used for most square baskets; oval reed, which is used for many round baskets; and round reed, which is used to twine; another advantage is that reed can also be dyed easily to look like oak or hickory. Many types of plants can be used to create baskets: dog rose, honeysuckle, blackberry briars once the thorns have been scraped off and many other creepers. Willow was used for its flexibility and the ease with which it could be grown and harvested.
Willow baskets were commonly referred to as wickerwork in England. Water hyacinth is used as a base material in some areas where the plant has become a serious pest.
For example, a group in Ibadan led by Achenyo Idachaba have been creating handicrafts in Nigeria. Because vines have always been readily accessible and plentiful for weavers, they have been a common choice for basketry purposes. The runners are preferable to the vine stems because they tend to be straighter. Pliable materials like kudzu vine to more rigid, woody vines like bittersweet, grapevine, honeysuckle, wisteria and smokevine are good basket weaving materials.
Although many vines are not uniform in shape and size, they can be manipulated and prepared in a way that makes them easily used in traditional and contemporary basketry. Most vines can be split and dried to store until use. Once vines are ready to be used, they can be soaked or boiled to increase pliability. The type of baskets that reed is used for are most often referred to as " wicker " baskets, though another popular type of weaving known as "twining" is also a technique used in most wicker baskets.Weaving was probably invented much later than spinningaround BCin West Asia.
At first people just wove narrow bands with their fingers, tying one end to their belt. That was something like the finger-knitting you might know how to do. Minoan man wearing a kilt that may be made of band-woven strips sewn together, from the tomb of Rekhmire, in Egypt, about BC. You could do band-weaving while you were riding a horse, so it was better for nomads than loom-weaving. People sewed the long bands — like ribbons or headbands — together along the long sides. They wrapped those cloths around their middles to make skirts or kilts.
In this picture from New Kingdom Egypt, a Minoan man wears a kilt that seems to be made this way, by sewing five or six bands together. A loom is a wooden frame that keeps the strings pulled tight so you can weave in and out of them conveniently. In sunny places like Egypt or Iran, people stretch out the loom horizontally in the courtyard.
In the video, a woman uses a horizontal loom. You can also see a horizontal loom in the model of a weaving workshop from an Egyptian tomb scroll down. But in rainy or cold places, like Greece and Italy, people used a loom that stood up against the wall, so you could use it inside the house. People also invented weaving in the Americasmaybe around the same time as in Afro-Eurasia. They might have brought band-weaving with them from Asia, and then, as they settled down, they also invented wider looms and wider fabrics.
In the Americas, people mostly wove cotton and alpaca wool. Of course there are many other uses for thread like tying up your hair or making fishing lines or hunting nets. But suppose you want to make cloth. So you take this thread and you loop it back and forth over a loom to make the warpand then you weave back and forth through the warp to make the weftand then you have a finished piece of cloth. Greek women weaving at a vertical warp-weighted loom — Athens, s BC.
People used different kinds of thread depending on where they were. Some places were hot, and people wanted thin, breezy clothing.Weaving is technique of fabric production. It consists of intertwining of two separate yarns or threads at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. Those two threads are called warp and the weft.
Fabric is usually woven on a loom which is a device that holds the warp threads in place while weft is woven through them. There are also other methods of weaving. The method where the warp and weft interlace with each other is called the weave.
The basic types of weave are plain weave, satin weave and twill which give different patterns and textures of fabrics for different uses. Humans know about weaving since Paleolithic era. Flax weavings are found in Fayum, Egypt, dating from around BC. First popular fiber in ancient Egypt was flax, which was replaced by wool around BC. By the beginning of counting the time weaving was known in all the great civilizations. Early looms need one or two persons to work on them.
Bible refers to loom and weaving in many places. At that time also appeared pit-treadle loom with pedals for operating heddles.
Faithful were required by Islam to be covered from neck to ankle which increased the demand for cloth. In Africa, the rich wore cotton clothing while the poorer had to wear wool. Byloom was improved in Moorish Spain with rising higher above the ground on a stronger frame. This type of loom became the standard European loom.
In Medieval Europe, weaving was done at home and sold at fairs. The craft spread and the guilds were established.